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Table 3

Experimental results of high-dimensional test functions with different algorithms

Function Dimension WOA GWO HHO TDHHO
Mean Std Mean Std Mean Std Mean Std
F1 100 3.10E-71 1.66E-70 1.27E-12 8.19E-13 3.77E-95 1.36E-94 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 1.87E-66 1.02E-65 1.50E-03 4.26E-04 6.14E-90 3.34E-89 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F2 100 2.87E-49 3.39E-47 4.44E-08 1.58E-08 6.50E-48 3.39E-47 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 6.98E-48 3.72E-47 1.07E-02 1.60E-03 5.67E-49 2.97E-48 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F3 100 1.02E+06 2.85E+05 4.85E+02 5.19E+02 4.11E-51 2.45E-50 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 2.82E+07 8.42E+06 2.91E+05 5.82E+04 1.94E-37 1.06E-36 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F4 100 8.22E+01 1.49E+01 9.85E-01 6.40E-01 1.11E-49 2.80E-49 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 8.75E+01 1.21E+01 6.53E+01 4.14E+00 2.30E-47 1.22E-46 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F5 100 9.82E+01 1.96E-01 9.79E+01 8.18E-01 4.62E-02 6.12E-02 2.13E-10 4.34E-10
500 4.96E+02 4.42E-01 4.98E+02 4.02E-01 2.00E-01 2.11E-01 7.50E-09 2.23E-08
F6 100 4.16E+00 1.23E+00 9.93E+00 1.08E+00 5.76E-04 7.99E-04 2.70E-11 1.31E-10
500 3.26E+01 8.04E+00 9.13E+01 1.92E+00 4.90E-03 5.30E-03 2.33E-10 1.02E-09
F7 100 3.20E-03 3.00E-03 7.40E-03 3.00E-03 1.58E-04 1.33E-04 3.77E-04 3.74E-04
500 5.90E-03 5.40E-03 4.56E-02 1.08E-02 1.98E-04 2.23E-04 2.18E-04 2.23E-04
F8 100 -3.55E+04 6.00E+03 -1.60E+04 2.17E+03 -4.19E+04 2.32E+02 -4.19E+04 1.72E+02
500 -1.66E+05 2.89E+04 -5.41E+04 1.12E+04 -2.09E+05 1.71E+01 -2.09E+05 5.97E+02
F9 100 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 8.55E+00 6.55E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 3.03E-14 1.66E-13 7.86E+01 3.21E+01 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F10 100 4.20E-15 2.46E-15 1.29E-07 4.65E-08 8.88E-16 0.00E+00 8.88E-16 0.00E+00
500 4.20E-15 2.46E-15 2.00E-03 3.76E-04 8.88E-16 0.00E+00 8.88E-16 0.00E+00
F11 100 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 5.10E-03 1.07E-02 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
500 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 4.30E-03 2.24E-02 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
F12 100 4.58E-02 1.95E-02 3.00E-01 7.53E-02 3.35E-06 3.87E-06 2.31E-12 5.95E-12
500 1.02E-01 4.99E-02 7.50E-01 4.70E-02 1.45E-06 2.24E-06 8.31E-13 3.00E-12
F13 100 2.78E+00 9.36E-01 7.00E+00 4.07E-01 1.47E-04 2.28E-04 2.32E-11 9.66E-11
500 2.06E+01 6.96E+00 5.05E+01 1.26E+00 4.96E-04 7.58E-04 3.51E-10 1.88E-09

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